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Nationalisation of Banks in India

In view of the reluctance of Commercial Banks, before 1969, to finance small business ventures and agriculture and opening up of branches in rural areas, compelled the Government of India to take over the control of banks by nationalising them.

Nationalisation of Banks
A significant milestone in Indian Banking happened in the late 1960s when the government nationalised on 19th July, 1969 14 major commercial Indian Banks. The second wave of nationalisation took place in 1980 with 6 more commercial banks got nationalised. The stated reason for the nationalisation was more control of credit delivery. After this, until the 1990s, the nationalised banks grew at a leisurely pace of around 4%. In 1993, New Bank of India was amalgamated with Punjab National Bank.
Post 1990 Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation took place and took the banking industry to new heights. Technological advancement started by migrating from manual to computerisation of records. Narasimham Committee recommendations on prudential norms for Non Performing Assets were adopted which resulted in healthy growth of banks asset portfolio.

Narasimham Committee Report 1991 &1998
The Narasimham committee was set up in order to study the problems of the Indian Financial system and to suggest some recommendations for improvement in the efficiency and productivity of the financial institutions.

The committee had given the following major recommendations:
1. Reduction in SLR and CRR:
The committee recommended the Reduction of the higher proportion of the statutory liquidity ratio and cash reserve ratio. Both of these ratios were very high at that time.
The SLR was 38.5 percent and CRR was 15 percent. This high percentage of SLR and CRR meant locking the bank resources for govt uses. SLR was recommended to be from 38.5 to 25 percent and CRR from 15 percent and 3.5 percent.

2. Phasing out of Directed Credit programme:
Since Nationalisation, Directed Credit programmes were adopted by the Government.
The committee recommend Phasing out of this programme. This programme compelled banks to earmark their financial resources for the needy and poor sectors at concessional rates of interest.

3. Interest Rate Determination:
The committee felt that the interest rates in India were regulated and controlled by the authorities. The committee recommended eliminating Government controls on interest rates and Phasing out the concessional interest rates for the priority sector.

4. Structural Reorganization of the Banking Sector:
The committee recommended that the actual number of public sector banks need to be reduced. Three to four large banks including SBI should be developed as international banks. Eight to ten banks having nationwide presence should concentrate in the National and universal banking services.
Local banks should concentrate on region specific banking. Regarding RRBs, it
recommended that they should focus on agriculture and rural financing.

5. Establishment of the ARF and Tribunal:
The proportion of bad debts and non-performing assets of the public banks and Development Financial institute was very alarming in those days. The committee recommended the Establishment of an assets reconstruction fund. This fund would take over the proportion of the bad and doubtful debts from the banks and financial institutes. It would help banks to get rid of bed debts.

6. Removal of Dual Control:
The committee recommended the stopping of this system. It considered and recommended that the RBI should be the only main agency to regulate banking in India.

7. Banking autonomy:
The committee recommended that the public sector banks should be free and
autonomous. Banking technology upgradation would thus be easy.

Narasimham Committee Report II – 1998
In 1998 the Government appointed yet another committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Narasimham. It was told to review the banking reform progress and design a programme for further strengthening the financial system of India. The committee focused on various areas such as capital adequacy bank mergers bank legislation. It submitted its report to the Government in April 1998 with the following recommendations:
1. Strengthening the Banks in India
2. Narrow Banking
3. Capital Adequacy Ratio
4. Bank Ownership
5. Review of Banking Laws
Apart from these major recommendations the committee has also recommended faster computerisation, technology upgradation, training of staff, depoliticizing of banks, professionalism in banking, reviewing bank recruitment etc.

Banks in India:
Banks in India are broadly categorised in to three types.
(1) Public Sector Banks
(2) Private Sector Banks
(3) Foreign Banks

Under Public sector banks
(1) Nationalised Banks
(2) State Bank of India and their subsidiaries
(3) Regional Rural Banks

Scheduled Banks
Scheduled Banks in India constitute those banks which have been included in the second schedule of RBI act 1934. RBI includes only those banks in this schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42(6a) of the Act. All public sector banks in India are scheduled.

Regional Rural Banks
The government of India set up Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) on October 2, 1975
The banks provide credit to the weaker sections of the rural areas, particularly the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, and small entrepreneurs.
Initially, five RRBs were set up on October 2, 1975 which was sponsored by Syndicate Bank, State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, United Commercial Bank and United Bank of India. The total authorized capital was fixed at Rs. 1 Crore which has since been raised to Rs. 5 Crores.

Unscheduled Banks
Unscheduled Bank in India” means a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), which is not a scheduled bank”.

Public Sector / Nationalised Banks

Sl No             Name of the Bank                                  Head Office                       Year of Commencement
1         Allahabad Bank                                            Kolkata                     1865
2         Andhra Bank                                             Hyderabad              20th Nov, 1923
3         Bank of Baroda                             Baroda (Vadodara)         20th July, 1908
4         Bank of India                                             Mumbai                   7th September, 1906
5         Bank of Maharashtra                              Pune                          1935
6         Bharatiya Mahila Bank                          New Delhi               2013
7         Canara Bank                                             Bangalore                1906
8         Central Bank of India                             Mumbai                   21 December, 1911
9         Corporation Bank                                    Mangalore               1906
10       Dena Bank                                         Mumbai                   1938
11       IDBI bank                                        Mumbai                   July, 1964
12       Indian Bank                                               Chennai                   1907
13       Indian Overseas Bank                            Chennai                   February 10th, 1937
14       Oriental Bank of Commerce                 New Delhi               February 19th, 1943
15       Punjab National Bank                            New Delhi               1895
16       Punjab & Sind Bank                                New Delhi               1908
17       Syndicate Bank                             Manipal                    1925
18       UCO Bank                                        Mumbai                   6th January, 1943
19       Union Bank of India                                Kolkata                     11th November, 1919
20       United Bank of India                               Kolkata                     1950
21       Vijaya Bank                                                Bangalore                1931
22       ECGC                                                             Mumbai                   30th July, 1957

State Bank of India and its Subsidiaries
State Bank of India has 5 associate banks viz. State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala and State Bank of Travancore. State Bank of Saurashtra and State Bank of Indore are merged into SBI.

Sl No Name of the Bank                                  Head Office                       Year of Commencement
1         State Bank of India                                   Mumbai                   1st July, 1955
2         State Bank of Hyderabad                       Hyderabad              8th August, 1941
3         State Bank of Mysore                              Bangalore                2nd October, 1913
4         State Bank of Patiala                                Patiala                      1st April, 1960
5         State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur           Jaipur                        1963
6         State Bank of Travancore          Thiruvananthapuram    12th September, 1945
State Bank of Saurashtra                      Merged into SBI on          13th August, 2008
State Bank of Indore                               Merged into SBI on          2010

Private-sector banks
1 Axis Bank
2 Catholic Syrian Bank
3 City Union Bank
4 Development Credit Bank
5 Dhanlaxmi Bank
6 Federal Bank
7 HDFC Bank
8 ICICI Bank
9 IndusInd Bank
10 ING Vysya Bank
11 Karnataka Bank
12 Karur Vysya Bank
13 Kotak Mahindra Bank
14 Lakshmi Vilas Bank
15 Nainital Bank
16 Tamil Nadu Mercantile Bank
17 South Indian Bank
18 YES Bank
19 UP Agro Corporation Bank

List Foreign Banks Operating in India
1 Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank
2 Australia and New Zealand Bank
3 Bank International Indonesia
4 Bank of America NA
5 Bank of Bahrain and Kuwait
6 Bank of Ceylon
7 Bank of Nova Scotia (Scotia Bank)
8 Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ
9 Barclays Bank PLC
10 BNP Paribas
11 Calyon Bank
12 Chinatrust Commercial Bank
13 Citibank N.A.
14 Credit Suisse
15 Commonwealth Bank of Australia (Recently Launched Retail Services in Mumbai)
16 DBS Bank
17 DCB Bank now RHB Bank
18 Deutsche Bank AG
19 FirstRand Bank
21 JPMorgan Chase Bank
22 Krung Thai Bank
23 Mashreq Bank PSC
24 Mizuho Corporate Bank
25 Royal Bank of Scotland
26 Shinhan Bank
27 Société Générale
28 Sonali Bank
29 Standard Chartered Bank
30 State Bank of Mauritius
31 UBS
32 Woori Bank

Head offices of RRBs
  • Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas Bank Hanmakonda, Warangal
  • Andhra Pragathi Grameena Bank Kadapa,
  • Chaitanya Godavari Grameena Bank Brodipet, Guntur
  • Deccan Grameena Bank Nallakunta, Hyderabad
  • Saptagiri Grameena Bank Chittoor

Some Important Facts about Banks in India

  • First bank established in India: Bank of Hindustan in 1770
  • Second bank: General Bank of India, 1786
  • Oldest bank in India – State Bank of India
  • First Indian bank got ISO - Canara Bank
  • First India bank started solely with Indian capital investment is PNB (Punjab
  • National Bank)
  • Founder of Punjab National Bank is Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Reserve bank of India (RBI) was instituted in 1935
  • First governor of RBI: Mr.Osborne Smith
  • First Indian Governor of RBI: Mr. C D Deshmukh
  • First bank to introduce savings account in India: Presidency Bank in 1833
  • First bank to introduce cheque system in India: Bengal Bank in 1833
  • First bank to introduce internet banking: ICICI bank
  • First bank to introduce mutual fund: State Bank of India
  • First bank to introduce credit card in India: Central Bank of India
  • Plastic money is known as – Credit Cards
  • Open market operations are carried out by – RBI
  • Capital market regulator is – SEBI
  • Largest Commercial bank in India – State Bank of India
  • Minimum money transfer limit through RTGS: 2 Lakhs
  • Maximum money transfer limit through RTGS: No Limit
  • Minimum & Maximum money transfer limit through NEFT: No Limit
  • NABARD was established in – July, 1982
  • Largest Public sector bank in India – SBI
  • Largest Private sector bank in India – ICICI Bank
  • Largest Foreign bank in India – Standard Chartered Bank
  • First Indian bank to open branch outside India (London in 1946): Bank of India
  • First RRB named Prathama Grameen Bank was started by: Syndicate Bank
  • First Bank to introduce ATM in India: HSBC in1987, Mumbai
  • Which bank has maximum number of overseas branches: Bank of Baroda
  • FDI limit for new banks – 49%
  • FDI limit for private banks: 74%

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