Parts Of Speech

A noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Ex: Queen, Ramu, Sirisha, Hyderabad, Chair.

1.Proper Noun: The proper noun is the name of a person; place or thing
proper here means one's own.
Ex: Ashoka was a wise king. The noun Ashoka refers to a particular king, but the noun king might be applied to any other king as well as to Ashoka. So we call Ashoka proper noun and king a common noun.

2.Common Noun: Common Noun is a name given in common to every person, or thing of the same kind or class.
Ex: Sita is a good girl. Here Sita is a proper noun while girl is a common noun.

3.Collective Noun: A collective noun is name of a number or collection of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole.
Ex: The French army was defeated at Waterloo. Here the army is collective Noun.

4.Abstract Noun: An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.
Quality: Goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness, hardness, brightness, honesty, wisdom and bravery etc.
Action: Laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred etc.
State: Childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, death, poverty etc.

5.Material nouns: Material Nouns are the names of metals.
Ex: Gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, wood etc.
Except abstract nouns, all the other nouns are usually known as Concrete nouns, as they  have form, shape weight while the abstract nouns don't as they can't be seen, touched or weighed but only can be felt.





Pronouns
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It is of 7 kinds.

1. Personal Pronouns: They refer to persons either first or second or third person. (I, We, You, He, She, It and They)
Ex: I saw her. He met me. They asked you for us. Words in bold are
Personal Pronouns.

2. Reflexive and Emphatic
Pronouns: When self is added to my, your, him, her, it and selves to our, your, them, we get Personal Pronouns. They are Reflexive pronouns when the done by the subject turns back (reflects) upon the subject.
Ex: I hurt myself.
She hurt herself.
We hurt ourselves.
They hurt themselves.
You can notice that these pronouns are as the objects of the verb and refer to the same persons denoted by the Subjects of the verbs.

Emphatic Pronouns:
Ex:
I will do it myself.
I myself saw her do it.
You yourself can best explain.
They themselves admitted their guilt.

3. Demonstrative Pronouns: They point out the objects to which they
refer, and are therefore called Demonstrative Pronouns. This, that,
these, those, such are demonstrative pronouns.
Ex: This is a present from my girl
friend.
These are merely excuses.
Both cars are good, but this is better than that.
Bombay mangoes are better than those of Bangalore. (Not 'than Bangalore').

4. Indefinite Pronouns: They refer to persons or things in a general way, but don't refer to any person or thing in particular. These are called
Indefinite Pronouns. Some such pronouns are: One, None, They, all, some, somebody, nobody, few, many, others, anybody, everybody, everyone and
so on.
Ex: One hardly knows what to do.
One must love one's country.
They say that he has lost heavily.
All were drowned in the recent accident.
Some are born great.
Nobody was there to help the old woman.
Love is like a ghost everybody talks but few have seen it.
What is everybody's business is nobody's business.

5. Distributive Pronouns: Each, either, neither are called Distributive Pronouns because they refer to persons or things one at a time. For this reason, they are always singular and as such followed by the verb in the singular.
Each is used to denote every one of a number of persons or things taken
singly.
Either means the one or the other of two. Neither means 'not the one nor
the other of the two. It is the negative of either. Hence neither and either should be used only in speaking of two persons or things.
When more than two are spoken of, 'any, no one, none' should be used.
Ex: Each of the boys gets a prize.
Either of these roads leads to the college.
Neither of the accusations is true.

6. Relative Pronouns: Who, whose, whom, that, which are called Relative Pronouns. They refer to or relate to some noun going before which is called its Antecedent. They join sentences like a conjunction does. So they are also known as Conjunctive pronouns.
Ex: I met Hari. Hari had just arrived.
I have found the pen. I had lost the pen.
Here is the book. You lent me the book.
The above three pairs of sentences can be joined like this with the helpof relative pronouns.
I met Hari who had just arrived.
I have found the pen which I had lost.
Here is the book that you lent me.

7. Interrogative Pronouns: Who, whose, what are interrogative pronouns. Though they are similar in form to Relative Pronouns, the work
which they do is different. They are used for asking questions and are therefore called Interrogative pronouns.
Ex: Who is there?
Who are you?
Of whom do you speak?
Whose is this book?
Which is the house?
Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
What is the matter?
What do you want?
What will all the neighbours say?




Verbs

The traditional definition of a verb is "a word used to express action or describe a state of being". As the definition implies, there are two different types of verbs: Action verbs and Linking verbs that describe the subjects. Here are some examples.

Action verbs:
John laughed.
Jane wrote a novel.
Mom made some soup.

Linking verbs:
John is funny.
The novel became a best seller.
The soup smelled wonderful.

The important characteristic of all verbs is that verbs (and only verbs) have tenses; present, past and future.

Unless a word can be used in the present, past and future tense, it is not a verb - no exception whatever.

Verbs come in two types: regular and irregular.
Regular verbs form their past tenses in an absolutely regular way by adding ed, d.
Ex: Remember, remembered and remembered.

Irregular verbs form their past tense in some other irregular way, often by changing the vowel of the verb.
Ex: Go, went, gone



Parts of Speech
Postal Assistants Special
Adjectives

An adjective is a word used to describe a noun.
Ex: Beautiful house
Tall man
An awful noise
That dreadful old man
Five golden rings




Adverbs

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
By far the most common use of adverbs is to modify verbs, so we will deal with them first.
Ex: They parked the truck yesterday.
They loaded the truck there.
They drove the truck carefully.
They use the truck frequently.

Adverbs that modify Adjectives:
Ex: A completely false statement.
Some rather unusual ideas
A terribly hot afternoon.

Adverbs that modify other adverbs:
Ex: I always answer my calls very promptly.
The students answered the questions quite easily.
He fought rather fiercely with his problems.
I did even worse on the test than I had expected.




Prepositions

A preposition is a word which shows the relation between the noun or pronoun and other words in the sentence.
Ex: The boy is in the room
The book is on the table.

Kinds of prepositions:
1. Simple prepositions: for, in, at, to, by, from, of, off, on through, till, after, before, with.

2. Compound prepositions: about, above, across, amidst, around etc mthey are formed by prefixing a (=on) before a Noun, an Adjective, or an Adverb; or by prefixing be (=by) before a noun, an Adjective or an Adverb; as, before, behind, below,beneath, beside, between, beyond etc

3. Phrasal prepositions: according to, agreeably to, along with, away from, because of, by dint of, by means of, by reason of, by way of, by virtue of, for the sake of, in accordance with, in addition to, on behalf of, in case of, in comparison to, in course of, in favour of, in the  event of, in lieu of, in order to, in place of, in reference to, in regard to, in spite of, on account of, owing to, with a view to, with an eye to, with reference to, with regard to etc.

4. Double prepositions: Where one preposition doesn't serve the purpose, there more than one preposition may be used depending on the contextual necessity.
Ex: She looked at me from above her glasses.
I heard someone moving from behind the curtain.
There heard a feeble voice from within the well.
Can anybody from among you answer this?

5. Disguised prepositions: Some prepositions are disguised or in another form giving the prepositional meaning.
Ex: He went a (=on) hunting.
It's ten O'clock by my watch.
They get a thousand a (=per) day.







Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word which joins words, phrases, clauses or sentences to complete their meaning.
Ex: They reached the station but it was too late.
He put on his shoes because he was going for a run.
This is the tree that was planted by a foreigner (Relative pronoun)
This how he does his work (Relative adverb)
She came and stayed with me for two days (Conjunction)

Kinds of conjunctions:
1. Coordinating conjunctions:
They join together clauses of equal rank. Such conjunctions are: and, but, for, or, nor, also, either…or, neither…nor; they form coordinate clauses that are often found in compound sentences.
Ex: He came out and locked the door.
She is fair but forty.
You must do it or undergo the result.
2. Subordinating conjunctions:
They connect a subordinate clause to the main or principal clause. These conjunctions form subordinate clauses that are found in complex sentences. Subordinate means 'in the control of or in the authority of'.
They are: after, before, because, if, that, though, although, till, unless,
as, when, where, while etc.

Ex: Resume your work after you have taken a little rest.
Finish all your work before you go home.
He can't attend duty because he is ill.
Though he is poor, he is honest.
Unless you work hard, you can't reach your goal.







Interjections
An interjection is a word that expresses some sudden feeling
 or emotion.
Aah - This is used as a call for help or when someone is scared
Boo - Used to scare someone or to voice disapproval
 Eh - This is used when you didn't hear or understand what someone said
 Eww - Ahows dislike or disgust
 Hmm - This can mean you are thinking or hesitating
 Jeez - Could mean you can't believe something, or you are exasperated
 Ooh-la-la - A slightly comical way to refer to something as fancy or special
 Oops - An exclamation people use when they accidentally do something
 Phew - This expresses relief or that you are glad something is over
 Whoa - This can show surprise or amazement
 Yahoo - Expresses joy or happiness
 Yeah - This shows a very strong affirmation or approval
 Yoo-hoo - This is used to get someone's attention and is usually used by women
 Zing - This is similar to a rim shot used in comic acts and emphasizes a clever statement or comeback
Ex: Ahh, that feels wonderful.
Alas! I'm lost in the wilderness.
Bah! That was a total waste of time.
Bless you; I couldn't have done it without you.
It's time for me to go. Cheerio!
Congrats! You finally got your Master's degree.
Crikey! Do you ever think before you speak?
Gesundheit! Are you starting to get a cold?
Good grief! Why are you wearing shorts in the winter?
Oh dear! I don't know what to do about this mess.
Shoot! I forgot my brother's birthday.
Well, duh! That was a stupid thing to do!