Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences or clauses, and sometimes words.
1. That is a beautiful place and I have been there.
2. That is the beautiful place where I have been to.

Classes of Conjunctions:

Conjunctions are divided into two classes: 1) Co-ordinating and 2) Sub-ordinating.
1. Co-ordinating conjunction :
It joins together clauses of equal ranks. For eg. He is slow, but he is sure.
2. Sub-ordinating conjunction :
It joins together clauses in which one is dependent on the other. For eg. Since you wish to excel in life, you must learn English.

Some rules:

Rule: Scarcely should be followed by when, not by than.
Incorrect: Scarcely had he arrived than he had to leave again.
Correct: Scarcely had he arrived when he had to leave again.


Rule : No sooner is followed by than, not by but.
Incorrect: No sooner had we reached the station but the train left.
correct: No sooner had we reached the station than the train left.
Note : "No sooner A ... than B" is very similar to "Scarcely A... when B" and has almost the same meaning.

Rule : Do not use seldom or ever in place of seldom or never.
Incorrect: The national network seldom or ever telecasts good programmes.
Correct: The national network seldom or never telecasts good programmes.

Rule : Correlative conjunctions should be followed by the same part of speech.
Incorrect: He neither agreed to my proposal nor to his.
Correct: He agreed neither to my proposal nor to his.

Rule : Neither is followed by nor, not by or.
Incorrect: The phone neither went dead or worked properly.
Correct: The phone neither went dead nor worked properly.

Rule : The conjunction that is not used before
i) a sentence in direct narration.
ii) an interrogative adverb or interrogative pronoun in the indirect narration.
Incorrect: He said that, "it is none of my business".
Correct: He said, "It is none of my business."
Incorrect: He asked me that which was the way to the station.
Correct: He asked me which was the way to the station.

Rule : Although goes with yet or a comma (,) in the other clause.
Incorrect: Although Manohar is hardworking, but he does not get a job.
Correct: Although Manohar is hardworking, yet he does not get a job.
Note : Though/Although is used with contradictory sentences (sentences expressing opposite views).
Incorrect: Since she was sick, she attended the party.
Correct: Though she was sick, she attended the party.

Rule : Nothing else should be followed by but, not by than.
Incorrect: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else than red-tapism.
Correct: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else but red-tapism.

Rule : The correlative conjunctions indeed... but are used to emphasis the contrast between the first and the second parts of the statement.
Incorrect: I am indeed happy with my school but it produces famous men.
Correct: I am indeed happy with my school that it produces famous men.

Rule : In a "not only ... but also ... "sentence, the verb should agree with the noun or pronoun mentioned second, that is, the one after but also because this is the part being emphasised.
Incorrect: Not only the students but also the teacher were responsible for what happened in the class.
Correct: Not only the students but also the teacher was responsible for what happened in the class.

Rule : Not only ... but also always comes before the same part of speech.
Incorrect: They not only gave me standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.
Correct: They gave me not only standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.

Rule : Such...as is used to denote a category whereas such...that emphasises the degree of something by mentioning its consequence.
Incorrect: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems necessary.
Correct: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action that it deems necessary.

Rule : The conjunction “lest” is followed by “should”.
Incorrect: Work hard lest you would fail.
Correct: Work hard lest you should fail.
Note: “Lest” is a negative word. There should be no use of “not”, “nothing”, “never”, “no” with lest”.
Incorrect: Word hard lest you should not fail.
Correct: Word hard lest you should fail.

Rule : The conjunction so—as is used for comparison in a negative sentence whereas—as is used in a positive or affirmative sentence.
Incorrect: He is not as tall as his brother.
Correct: He is not so tall as his brother.

Rule : The conjunction, “both” is followed by “and” and not by “as well as” or “along with”.
Incorrect: Both the boys as well as the girls were asbent.
Correct: Both the boys and the girls were absent.

Rule : The conjunction “unless” denotes condition whereas “until” denotes time.
Incorrect: Until you work hard, you will not succeed.
Correct: Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.
Note : “Unless” and “Until” are negative words. There should be no use of “not” “nothing”, “never” with unless and until.





Questions based on above concepts:
Directions: In each of the following questions, find out which part of the sentence has an error. The error may be grammatical or idiomatic. If there is no mistake, the answer is ‘No error’.

1. The managing director well as (a)/ the Board members was in (b)/ favour of taking strict action (c)/ against the striking workers. (d)/ No error (e)

2. Unless he does not return (a)/ all the library books (b)/ he will not be relieved (c)/ from the service.(d)/ No error (e)

3. You must either tell me (a)/ the whole story or (b)/, at least, the (c)/ first half of it. (d)/ No error (e)

4. The old woman has had the (a)/ best medical facilities available (b)/ but she will not be cured unless she does not have (c)/ a strong desire to live.(d)/ No error (e)

5. Hardly had I reached (a)/ the airport where (b)/ I learnt about the powerful (c)/ bomb explosion.(d)/ No error (e)

6. The manager of the bank (a)/ was busy; so he asked them (b)/ to come and see him between two to (c)/ three in the afternoon.(d)/ No error (e)

7. Because he is physically (a)/ strong, therefore he was (b)/ selected for the school (c)/ boxing team.(d)/ No error (e)

8. Being a strict (a)/ vegetarian he depended (b)/ on milk and fruit and (c)/ had to cook for himself.(d)/ No error (e) 

9. Even though the shirt (a)/ is rather expensive but (b)/ I wish to purchase (c)/ it with my own money.(d)/ No error (e)

10. Unless Ashish does not (a)/ return all the library books, (b)/ he will not be awarded (c)/ the pass certificate. (d)/ No error (e)

Answers :

1.  a; Add ‘as’ before ‘well’
2.  a; Replace ‘does not return’ with ‘returns’
3.  e; No error
4.  c; Replace ‘does not have’ with ‘has’
5.  b; Replace ‘where’ with ‘when’
6.  c; Replace ‘to’ with ‘and’
7.  b; Remove ‘therefore’
8.  c; Replace ‘and’ with ‘or’
9.  b; Remove ‘but’
10. a; Replace ‘unless’ with ‘if’