Adverb

An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or an adverb. 

For example
 Rama runs quickly.
Govinda reads quite clearly.

Kinds of Adverb:
(a) According to meaning:
1) Adverbs of Time : They are the adverbs which tell us when an action takes place. For example,
I shall meet you tomorrow.
Rule : Time adverbs cannot be used in the present perfect, instead the past indefinite is used for them. 
Incorrect : I have seen a 3D movie last night.
Correct : I saw a 3D movie last night.

2) Adverbs of Place : They are the adverbs which tell us where an action takes place. For example,
He left his bag there.
3) Adverbs of Manner : They are the adverbs which tell us how an action takes place or in what manner. For example, Gautam Buddha left his family stealthily.
4) Adverbs of Frequency : They are the adverbs which tell us how often an action takes place. For example, The Delhi Police is always with you .
5) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity : They are the adverbs which tell us how much or in what degree or to what extent. For example,
I have pleaded enough and now I give up.

Rule : The adverb “so” as an adverb of degree must not be used absolutely.
Incorrect : He is so rich.
Correct : He is very rich.

Rule : That “should not be used instead of ” so “as an adverb”.
Incorrect : He went only that far.
Correct : He went only so far.

Rule : The adverb “too” should not be used instead of “very” or “much” and vice versa.
Incorrect : She is too intelligent.
Correct : she is very intelligent.

Rule : Much is used with past participles used as adjectives not with present participles.
Incorrect : The match became much interesting.
Correct : The match became very interesting.

Rule : Adverb of degree comes just before the adjective it qualifies.
Incorrect : He too is weak to run.
Correct : He is too weak to run.
They are so honest that they cannot tell a lie.

6) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation : They are the adverbs which tell us whether an action is done or not. For example,
He has not left the place.

7) Adverbs of Reason : They are the adverbs which tell us why an action takes place. For example,
She therefore decided to be a rich woman.

(b) According to use:

1) Simple Adverb : It only modifies some words (verb, adjective or an adverb). All the above examples belong to this category.
2) Interrogative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also introduces a question. For example, How did you come here?
3) Relative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also refers back to some antecedent. For example,
How can I forget the day when happiness was
showered on me from all sides?

Forms of adverb
Rule : Adjective should not be used for adverb.
Incorrect: The moon shone bright in the sky.
Correct: The moon shone brightly in the sky.

Rule : Some adverbs have two forms, the form ending in-ly and the form which is the same as adjective. For example, loud, quick, high, hard, near, late, pretty.
Incorrect: He fought hardly for the No. 1 spot.
Correct: He fought hard for the No. 1 spot.
Similarly, Incorrect: It would hard rain today.
Correct : It would hardly rain today.

Comparison of adverbs :
Rule : If the adverb is of one syllable, the comparative is formed by adding-er and the superlative by add ingest to the positive.
Incorrect : The hare ran more fast than the dog.
Correct : The hare ran faster than the dog.

Rule : Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative by adding more and the superlative by adding most.
Incorrect : The petrol price hike issue has been debated hotlier than the urea scam.
Correct : The petrol price hike issue has been debated more hotly than the urea scam.

Position of adverbs :
Rule : Adverbs of manner, place and time are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one.
Incorrect: He wrote last year a book.
Correct: He wrote a book last year.

Rule : When there are two or more adverbs after a verb (and its object), the normal order is; adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.
Incorrect: I read the proof yesterday meticulously at home.
Correct: I read the proof meticulously at home yesterday.

Rule : Adverbs of frequency and most of the adverbs of quantity are
i) normally put between the subject and the verb if the verb consists of only one word;
ii) put after the first word if there is more than one word in the verb;
iii) put after the verb if the verb is am/are/is/was/were;

Some more rules :
Rule : Two negatives should not be used in the same sentence unless we wish to make an affirmation.
Incorrect: she did not despise none of her lovers.
Correct: She did not despise any of her lovers.

Rule : Ever should not be used for never.
Incorrect: She seldom or ever has sweet talks with her son.
Correct: She seldom or never has sweet talks with her son.

Rule : Else should be followed by but.
Incorrect: It is nothing else than fatigue.
Correct: It is nothing else but fatigue.

Rule : Never should not be used for not.
Incorrect: She met her friend after a long time and her friend never recognised her.
Correct: She met her friend after a long time and her friend did not recognise her.

Exercise:

Directions: Find out the error in each of the following sentences, if any. If there is no error, the answer is ‘d’.
1. She behaved in a cowardly manner (a)/ before the headmaster (b)/ and hesitated to do the work. (c)/ No error (d)

2. The girl refused (a)/ not to (b)/ return the articles. (c)/ No error (d)

3. The real important thing (a)/ of our life is our livelihood (b)/ which discriminates us from animals. (c)/ No error (d)

4. She is too much beautiful (a)/ so most of the boys (b)/ run after her and want to influence her. (c)/ No error (d)

5. The taxi driver who had come (a)/ to receive us at (b)/ the airport was speaking fluently French. (c)/ No error (d)

6. The observers feel that (a)/ the stronger team has to face defeat (b)/ because the players don’t play whole hearted. (c)/ No error (d)

7. Although he is usually (a)/ rude with everyone, (b)/ he behaved nice with all of us today. (c)/ No error (d)

8. He ran so fastly (a)/ that he reached first and (b)/ realised that he had (c)/ not earned anything substantial. (d)/ No error (e)

9. In spite of toiling (a)/ very hardly he (b)/ realised that he had not earned anything substantial. (c)/ No error (d)

10. We were very much (a)/ carefully in our approach (b)/ and hence we would complete the complicated task. (c) No error (d)



Answers..

1. d; No error
2. b; Omit the word “not”
3. a; Replace “real” with “really”
4. a; Replace “too much” with “very”
5. c; Replace “fluently French” with “French fluently”
6. c; Replace “whole-hearted” with “whole-heartedly”
7. c; Replace “nice” with “nicely”
8. a; Replace “fastly” with “fast”
9. b; Replace “hardly” with “hard”
10. b; Replace “carefully” with “careful”